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Лавр и его родственники: особенности выращивания и размножения

Сегодня я расскажу вам о редких и малораспространенных древесных растениях. В большинстве случаев это экзотические виды, культура которых лимитирована, прежде всего, критическими температурами, почвами, высокой влажностью или, наоборот, засушливостью региона. Часто даже микроклимат дачи играет не последнюю роль. Но разве можно остановить русского человека в его желании вырастить запавшую в самое сердце экзотику? Нет, конечно же. Именно поэтому я продолжаю знакомить вас с древесными редкостями, уточняя их зимостойкость по зонам USDA и акцентируя внимание на важных нюансах выращивания.

Цветение лавра благородного в открытом грунте. Фото автора

Сегодня встречайте экзотических представителей из семейства Лавровые (Lauraceae).

Беилшмедия

Беилшмедия Роксбурга (Beilschmiedia roxburghiana) — редкое в культуре растение, которое можно увидеть в Сочинском дендрарии. Благодаря неприхотливости может расти под кронами деревьев, представляет определенный интерес для заполнения данной ниши в условиях влажных субтропиков Черноморского побережья Краснодарского края (ЧПКК). Она теплолюбива: согласно данным USDA, ее зоны зимостойкости — 10-11.

Беилшмедия Роксбурга. Фото с сайта qsbg.org

Это вечнозеленое кустовидное дерево высотой 10-15 м, но таких размеров оно достигает только в местах своего естественного произрастания. Родом оно из Гималаев: горных районов Ассама и Бирмы. Кожистые листья крупные, темно-зеленые, повисающие, морщинистые. Цветки желтовато-зеленые, маленькие, невзрачные, собраны в редкие соцветия. Плоды — мелкие черные костянки.

Особенности выращивания и размножения

Отлично чувствует себя в полутени на плодородных влажных, хорошо дренированных почвах. Всхожесть семян хорошая — при посеве свежесобранных осенью в холодный парник.

Коричники

Коричники (Cinnamomum) — вечнозеленые растения. Особенно интересны в начале лета, когда у них наблюдается частичный листопад, и прошлогодние листья становятся алыми. От к. чжэцзянского не оторвать глаз и весной, когда в его молодых огненно-красных блестящих листьях отражаются блики восходящего и угасающего солнца.

Удивительно красивы молодые листья коричника чжэцзянского. Фото с сайта nurcar.com

На Южном берегу Крыма (ЮБК), в Никитском ботаническом саду, растут к. камфорный (C. camphora) и к. железконосный, или лавр ложнокамфорный (C. glanduliferum), о которых я уже рассказывала в материале Камфороносные, касторовые и мастиковые растения. 

Коричник камфорный. Фото автора

Коричник Зибольда

К. Зибольда (C. sieboldii) ранее был известен как к. Лурье (C. loureirii). Родом он из Южной Японии.

Коричник Зибольда. Фото с сайта naturalmedicinefacts.info

Это невысокое дерево, высотой 3-4 м, с плотной округлой кроной. Листья широколанцетные, пахнущие корицей, кожистые, со своеобразным рельефным жилкованием.

Коричник чжэцзянский

Коричник чжэцзянский (C. chekiangense) родом из Китая, восточной провинции Чжэцзян.

Коричник чжэцзянский. Фото с сайта nurcar.com

Неприхотливое в культуре долговечное вечнозеленое дерево, высотой 10-12 м, с относительно узкой кроной. Листья почти как у к. камфорного, но более узкие, с подвернутыми краями и без резкого запаха камфоры, длиной 15 см. В условиях культуры на ЧПКК его часто принимают за лавр камфорный. Растет медленно.

Особенности выращивания и размножения

По зонам зимостойкости, согласно данным USDA, коричники распределились следующим образом:

  • к. камфорный — 8b-9;
  • к. железконосный — 10b-11;
  • к. Зибольда — 13;
  • к. чжэцзянский — 7-9.

То есть первый и последний виды можно и нужно размножать и вводить в садовые композиции в южных регионах. До высадки на постоянное место саженцы лучше выращивать в контейнерах. На остальной территории России, в том числе и в средней полосе, коричники выращивают в кадочной культуре. Они нетребовательны к почвенным условиям, но лучше развиваются на глубоких, влажных, рыхлых глинистых плодородных почвах. При букетной посадке нескольких саженцев в одну яму вырастают многоствольные (сросшиеся основаниями) деревья. Размножают свежесобранными семенами: посев — осенью в холодный парник или весной при температуре +13…+18°С; полуодревесневшими черенками летом.
 

Лавр

Как пряность лист лавра благородного (Laurus nobilis) знаком каждому, а вот увидеть его высоким деревом довелось не всем. Его родиной считают Малую Азию, Средиземноморье. Теплолюбив: зимостойкость (согласно данным USDA) — зоны 8-10. Верхушки молодых побегов обмерзают при морозах ниже –15°C. Более подробно о перезимовке лавра в Краснодаре рассказано в материале Лавр в открытом грунте (Укрытие лавра на зиму).

Лавр благородный в стрижке. Фото автора

Это двудомное (редко — однодомное) вечнозеленое ароматное дерево или кустарник высотой до 12-15 м и шириной до 10 м. Листья темно-зеленые, кожистые, овально-продолговатые или ланцетные, длиной 5-10 см; при растирании, а также в сухую жаркую погоду источают сильный пряный аромат.

Цветущий лавр благородный. Фото автора

Цветки душистые, светло-желтые, диаметром до 1 см, собраны по 4-6 в пазушные зонтичные соцветия; распускаются в марте-мае. Плоды — яйцевидные костянки длиной 1,5-2 см с блестящим мясистым черным околоплодником; созревают в сентябре-ноябре. Первые 2-3 года растет медленно. Долговечен. Лавровое масло славится фитонцидными свойствами.

Декоративные формы:

  • ‘Aurea’ — листья золотисто-желтые. Подробнее о нем рассказано в статье Древесные с желтыми листьями — находка для дачника;

Лавр благородный ‘Aurea’. Фото автора

  • Laurus nobilis var. undulata — листья широколанцетные, слегка волнистые по краю. По сравнению с другими лаврами меньше поражается вредителями. Наилучшая форма для создания живых изгородей. Размножают черенками;

  • ‘Crispa’ — крона компактная, плотная. Листья с сильно волнистым краем. Размножают черенками и семенами с последующим отбором сеянцев;

  • Laurus nobilis f. angustifolia — «шпротный» лавр, быстрорастущая садовая форма с конусовидной кроной. Листья ланцетные. Характеризуется регулярным и обильным плодоношением, плоды сохраняются до весны. Размножают семенами с отбором сеянцев;

Лавр благородный f. angustifolia. Фото автора

  • Laurus nobilis f. eriobotryfolia — крона широкая, листья с ароматом корицы, крупные, овально-заостренные, похожие на таковые мушмулы японской. Размножают черенками.

Особенности выращивания и размножения

Все лавры светолюбивы, но выдерживают полутень. Засухоустойчивы, к почвам не требовательны, но лучше растут на свежих дренированных известково-глинистых или супесчаных, не переносят избыточно влажных, тяжелых и засоленных. При желании задернить приствольный круг можно на 6-й год посадки, а до этого содержат почву в чистом и рыхлом состоянии. В первый год посадки полив регулярный, со 2-го по 5-й — по мере подсыхания почвы, в дальнейшем — только в засушливый период.

Обрезка заключается в укорачивании всех сильнорослых побегов. Старые кусты лавра по мере оголения снизу обрезают на высокий пень. Лавры идеально переносят стрижку, пригодны для формованных, технических, лекарственных, пряных живых изгородей и стен.

Могут повреждаться щитовками и поражаться мучнистой росой, пятнистостью листьев, поэтому проводят профилактические обработки системными инсектицидами против комплекса вредителей и фунгицидами против грибных заболеваний. Размножают свежесобранными семенами, одревесневшими черенками, отводками, корневыми отпрысками. В условиях ЮБК и ЧПКК дает обильный самосев. А если хотите вырастить лавр в комнатных условиях, вам пригодится публикация Лавр и имбирь: как вырастить ароматные культуры дома.
 

Линдера

Линдера узколистная (Lindera angustifolia) — интересный листопадный кустарник, о котором я уже рассказывала в комментарии к вопросу Помогите определить дерево. Родом она из Восточного Китая. Зимостойкость, согласно данным USDA, соответствует зонам 6-8, то есть для нее критический зимний минимум находится на отметке от –23,3°С до –17,8°С.

Линдера узколистная весной. Фото автора

Она безупречно изящна весной — и осенью (красивые золотистые листья сохраняются на растении очень долго).

Линдера узколистная осенью. Фото автора

Особенности выращивания и размножения

Линдера хорошо приспосабливается к полутени, предпочитая увлажненные плодородные почвы. Размножают свежесобранными семенами, посев — в холодный парник.

Умбеллюлярия

Умбеллюлярию калифорнийскую (Umbellularia californica) еще называют калифорнийским лавром, так как она родом с тихоокеанского побережья Северной Америки. Зимостойкость ее, согласно данным USDA, соответствует зонам 7-10.

Умбеллюлярия калифорнийская

Это красивое вечнозеленое однодомное дерево с округлой кроной, высотой 18 м и шириной 12 м. Листья от эллиптических до продолговатых, длиной до 10 см, очень ароматные. Цветки похожи на цветки лавра, желтовато-зеленые, диаметром до 1 см, собраны в небольшие зонтиковидные соцветия; распускаются в конце зимы — весной. Плоды черные, овальные, ягодообразные; завязываются редко.

Особенности выращивания и размножения

Светолюбивое растение. Лучше себя чувствует на глубоких увлажненных, дренированных почвах. Размножают свежесобранными семенами; посев — осенью в холодный парник или полуодревесневшими черенками летом. К вредителям и болезням умбеллюлярия калифорнийская устойчива.

Сегодня вместо традиционных вопросов от автора хочу сказать: если кто-то из семидачников после этой статьи захочет вырастить у себя на даче или в доме лавровое растение, то я буду считать, что моя миссия выполнена.

Другие публикации нашего сайта, которые могут вас заинтересовать:

  • Редкие экзотические деревья, которые могут расти в средней полосе
  • Редкие гости цветников: необычные многолетники
  • Редкие луковичные растения из семейств Ирисовые и Гиацинтовые
  • Редкие луковичные растения из семейства Амариллисовые
  • Редкие луковичные растения из семейств Лилейные, Луковые и Безвременниковые
  • Идеи для креативной клумбы: растения-загадки
  • Самые необычные растения в мире

Источник: 7dach.ru

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    It waas really informative. Your sitre is useful. Thank yyou for sharing!

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